Albumin is an important regulator of osmotic equilibrium in the body and is also a carrier for highly protein-bound substances (e.g. calcium, thyroxine, fatty acids, and some drugs).
Albumin/Globulin (Alb/Glob) Ratio
The albumin/globulin ratio is the amount of albumin in the serum divided by the globulins. The ratio is used to try to identify causes of change in total serum protein.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is primarily an indicator of cholestatic liver disease. It also increases with severe bone destruction and due to steroid induction.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is a cellular enzyme released in response to injury of liver cells. ALT can also increase mildly with muscular injury and gastrointestinal disease.
Amylase is an enzyme produced primarily in the pancreas to digest dietary carbohydrates in the intestine.
Aspartate Aminotransferase is a cellular enzyme that primarily increases due to liver and muscle damage.
Bilirubin is an indicator of liver disease, gall bladder disease or hemolysis.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is produced in the liver and excreted by the kidneys. It is a marker for both liver and
Calcium is an ion that is required by the body for numerous intracellular and extracellular functions. Calcium also is
a major component in the structure of bone.
Cholesterol is one of the main lipids in the body. It has an important role as a component of cell membranes.
Chloride is the most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid. Chloride is important for acid/base balance, cellular fluid transport, and nerve function.
Creatine Kinase is a muscle enzyme. Increased CK suggests leakage of the enzyme from the muscle cells, often a result of muscle inflammation or trauma. CK may also be referred to as creatine phosphokinase (CPK).
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that is an accurate, highly specific, highly sensitive indicator of systemic inflammation in dogs.
A glycosulated protein; assayed to monitor control of diabetes mellitus. Used particularly in felines because cortisol-induced glucose swings are associated with stress of sampling for point assay of blood glucose levels.
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) is a marker of cholestatic liver disease
Globulins are produced in the liver and also by the cells of the immune system (gamma globulins). They have
many vital roles in the body including maintenance of osmotic balance, immune system function, and the inflammatory response.
Glucose is the basic energy source for the body.
Used as indicator for metabolic derangement.
Used as indicator for damage to the liver, cardiac or skeletal muscle.
Lipase is an enzyme produced primarily in the pancreas to break down dietary fats in the small intestine.
Magnesium is primarily an intracellular cation that is important in many enzymatic reactions.
Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that is primarily used for seizure control. Serum phenobarbital concentrations are assessed to help determine if the drug is reaching therapeutic levels and to asses for toxic levels.
Phosphorus is essential for energy production, protein synthesis, and acid/base balance in the body. Phosphorus is
also a major component of bone.
Potassium is an intracellular ion that is responsible for maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. Potassium is essential for muscle and nerve function.
Read more about SDMA here.
Sodium is the most abundant cation in the extracellular fluid. It is partially responsible for the regulation of fluid volume within the blood stream.
Total protein in the blood is primarily composed of albumin and globulins (see individual interpretive summaries)
with a minor contribution from coagulation proteins and fibrinogen.
Screen, diagnose and manage thyroid conditions
Indicator for abnormalities in lipid metabolism
Indicator for severity of renal disease in avian popualtions (and Dalmatians).